Do you know which level of editing you need?


There are four levels of editing: developmental editing, line editing, copy-editing and proofreading. Developmental editing focuses on the structure of a text, looking at how it all works together. Line editing, copy-editing and proofreading focus on the detail of the text, looking at it sentence-by-sentence and word-by-word. Find out more about Seymour Proofreading and the editing services I offer in the downloadable flyers below (PDF).

Developmental (or structural) editing aims to improve the content and structure of a text. In fiction, this would look at plot, pacing, structure, narrative and characterisation. In non-fiction, this would look at the structure and narrative of a text, as well as making sure the flow of ideas isn't confusing for the reader. I don't offer a developmental editing service, but I do offer an early manuscript review (beta reading) service. Click the button below to find out more about my early manuscript review service.

Line (or stylistic) editing addresses the content, writing style and language of a text at sentence and paragraph level, making sure the sentences flow smoothly while retaining the author's voice.

Copy-editing is the correcting stage where errors or inconsistencies in punctuation, spelling, grammar and formatting are addressed. The text is aligned to the style sheet at copy-editing level, making sure it is consistent with the preferred style and grammar rules.

Proofreading is the final check that a document goes through before publication. It picks up any errors that have been missed in previous rounds of editing. Ideally, when a proofread is requested, I will be working on the final draft and would mainly be correcting minor errors in punctuation, spelling, grammar and formatting. The text would already be consistent with a style sheet (if applicable) and be fully formatted, although there may be some tweaks required.

There can be some overlap between the different levels of editing. Copy-editing can be done at the same time as line editing. Proof-editing is a hybrid of proofreading and copy-editing. In traditional publishing, a text will have gone through the other stages of editing before it is proofread. Proof-editing happens when time and/or budget constraints mean that there is only one stage in the editing process. In proof-editing, the usual proofreading concerns apply, but the level of editing is likely to be greater.


Please contact me or refer to the CIEP factsheet proofreading vs copy-editing if you're still not sure which level of editing you need. For more details on how I can help you, please see my independent authors, academics or businesses services pages.​

"Her work was professional, and editing and comments very helpful to my writing. The work including an edit, spell check and comments on wording. My work included lots of unusual historical world building, but Victoria checked all the unusual place name spellings."

David Wilson